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Exception Code.

iPhone、Macと読書が大好き。iPhone・Mac・書評を中心に好きな事を書いていました。今は『ほーくブログ』でブログを書いています。

アメリカ大統領選挙は間接選挙!? – 書評 – 池上彰の政治の学校

      2012/12/14

IMG 5405

人生最初で最後の赤点は社会でした。@hawk_aです。

ホントに生まれてこのかた、教科でいうと社会全般が苦手なのですが、さすがにここまで知らないのはマズイ。ということでちょくちょく学んでおります。

その中でも、最近話題になっていたアメリカ大統領選挙について驚くべき事実を知ってしまったので、覚えておくためにも書いておこうと思います。

民主党と共和党の違い

実質アメリカは民主党(今で言うオバマ氏)と共和党(ロムニー氏)の二大政党制なのですが、各党で思想が違います。

 

民主党は「大きな政府」を目指していて、国民保険制度の充実など、国が手厚く社会保障をして貧しい人を救おう!という考えだということです。

一方、共和党は「小さな政府」を目指していて、社会保障は置いといて、市場の自由競争をして経済を良くしようじゃないか!という考えだそう。

 

資本主義を続けてきて、これだけ格差が大きくなっているのに、コレ以上自由競争をしたら恐ろしい事になりそうな気がするんですが、そういうわけでもないんでしょうか…?

 

アメリカ大統領選挙は実質間接選挙

そんな僕でもアメリカの大統領は国民が直接選ぶことは知っているつもりだったのですが、どうもそうではないようで、もう僕の社会力がどうしようもない感じになってます。

 

大統領が決まる年の、

1〜6月・・・大統領候補者を決定する「予備選挙」

8〜9月・・・各政党で党大会を開いて大統領候補決定

だいたい予備選挙で勝利した人が大統領候補となります。民主党と共和党の両党から1人ずつ大統領候補が選出されます。

 

この予備選挙は、有権者が代議員(各候補の支持者、支援団体の代表者など)に投票する制度となっています。

有権者がオバマ派だったら「私はオバマを推薦する!」と言っている代議員に、ロムニー派だったら「ロムニーが良い!」と言っている代議員に投票する仕組みです。

 

11月第1月曜日の翌日・・・大統領決定

ここで民主党と共和党の大統領候補者から大統領を選挙で決定します。このとき、有権者が投票するのは大統領本人ではなく自分の住む州の「選挙人」と呼ばれる人に対してです。

質問1:選挙人には誰がなるのか?

党への貢献度で選ばれるのが一般的だそうです。勝手な想像ですが選挙人て名誉職みたいなものかも知れませんね。だって決まっている人に投票するだけですから、、。

http://www.asahina.net/kiyotaka/senkyonin.htmlより

そして、その州で過半数以上獲得した大統領候補者は、その州にいる選挙人の人数の票数を獲得します。「総取り選挙」といわれてるようです。

そんなわけで、アメリカの大統領選挙は直接選挙といわれつつ、実質間接選挙だということです。すごいおもしろい。

 

これだけ長い期間をとっているから大統領が育つ

本書を読んでいて「おもしろいな〜」と思ったのが、大統領が選ばれる期間の長さが大統領を育てるという点です。

 

日本のように総理大臣がいきなり変わって、準備が十分にできないまま総理大臣になるのではなく、大統領選挙が行われる1月から11月までの間、「自分は大統領になる人間だ」という意識を持って生活しています。

そうすると、日が経つに連れどんどん大統領にふさわしい力を付けていく、ということらしいのです。

 

このアメリカの方式はすごいなぁと思いました。寝起きでいきなりカラオケに行っても声が上手く出ないのと同じように、いきなり総理大臣になれと言われても無理がある、と。

これは是非とも日本にもウマいこと取り入れて欲しいなぁと思います。

 

さいごに

こうやって知識を頭に入れておいてニュースを見ると、結構理解できることが多くて、興味を持って選挙を見ることができました。

初めてプログラムを組んだ時と同じように、学んでみると案外わかるものなのですね。政治も。

池上さんの神がかり的に分かりやすい説明のお陰で、政治の基礎がかなり身に付きました。

 - 書評

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